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The largest endocrine gland in the human body is the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland produces essential hormones for body growth. The balancing of thyroid gland hormones is necessary for the growth of the human body. If your thyroid gland hormones are imbalanced, you fell in severe disease.

There are two major diseases of the thyroid gland

1: Hypothyroidism (The thyroid disease, causes, symptoms, and its treatment)

The thyroid gland produced thyroxin hormone. This hormone made to need iodine; when a person has an illness of iodine in her food, then the thyroid gland produced little amount of thyroxin hormone. An illness of thyroxin hormone in our body, we fell into a severe disease called hypothyroidism.

When the thyroid gland produced little amount of thyroxine hormone automatically a person fell into disease hypothyroidism.

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Causes of hypothyroidism:

  • Thyroiditis: This condition is an inflammation (swelling) of the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis can lower the number of hormones your thyroid produces.
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: A painless disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune condition where the body’s cells attack and damage the thyroid. This is an inherited condition.
  • Postpartum thyroiditis: This condition occurs in 5% to 9% of women after childbirth. It’s usually a temporary condition.
  • Iodine deficiency: Iodine is used by the thyroid to produce hormones. An iodine deficiency is an issue that affects several million people around the world.
  • A non-functioning thyroid gland: Sometimes, the thyroid gland doesn’t work correctly from birth. This affects about 1 in 4,000 newborns. If left untreated, the child could have both physical and mental issues in the future. All newborns are given a screening blood test in the hospital to check their thyroid function.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism:

  • Feel tired (fatigue).
  • Gain weight.
  • Experience forgetfulness.
  • Have frequent and heavy menstrual periods.
  • Have dry and coarse hair.
  • Experience an intolerance to cold temperatures.

2: Hyperthyroidism (The thyroid disease, causes, symptoms, and its treatment)

The thyroid gland produced thyroxin hormone. When the thyroid gland produced more amount of thyroxin hormone person fell into a disease called hyperthyroidism.

When the thyroid gland produced more amounts of thyroxine hormone automatically a person fell into disease hyperthyroidism.

Causes of hyperthyroidism:

  • Graves’ disease: In this condition, the entire thyroid gland might be overactive and produce too much hormone. This problem is also called diffuse toxic goiter (enlarged thyroid gland).
  • Nodules: Hyperthyroidism can be caused by buds that are overactive within the thyroid. A single bud is called toxic autonomously functioning thyroid nodule, while a gland with several nodules is called a toxic multi-nodular goiter.
  • Thyroiditis: This disorder can be either painful or not felt at all. In thyroiditis, the thyroid releases hormones that were stored there. This can last for a few weeks or months.
  • Excessive iodine: When you have too much iodine (the mineral that is used to make thyroid hormones) in your body, the thyroid produces more thyroid hormones than it needs. Excessive iodine can be found in some medications (amiodarone, a heart medication) and cough syrups.

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism:

  • Experience anxiety, irritability, and nervousness.
  • Have trouble sleeping.
  • Lose weight.
  • Have an enlarged thyroid gland or a goiter.
  • Have muscle weakness and tremors.
  • Experiencing irregular menstrual periods or having your menstrual cycle stop.
  • Feel sensitive to heat.
  • Have vision problems or eye irritation.

The specific blood tests that will be done to test your thyroid can include:

  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is produced in the pituitary gland and regulates the balance of thyroid hormones — including T4 and T3 — in the bloodstream. This is usually the first test your provider will do to check for thyroid hormone imbalance. Most of the time, thyroid hormone deficiency (hypothyroidism) is associated with an elevated TSH level, while thyroid hormone excess (hyperthyroidism) is associated with a low TSH level. If TSH is abnormal, the measurement of thyroid hormones directly, including thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) may be done to further evaluate the problem. Normal TSH range for an adult: 0.40 – 4.50 mIU/mL (milli-international units per liter of blood).
  • T4: Thyroxine tests for hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and used to monitor treatment of thyroid disorders. Low T4 is seen with hypothyroidism, whereas high T4 levels may indicate hyperthyroidism. Normal T4 range for an adult: 5.0 – 11.0 ug/dL (micrograms per deciliter of blood).
  • FT4: Free T4 or free thyroxine is a method of measuring T4 that eliminates the effect of proteins that naturally bind T4 and may prevent accurate measurement. Normal FT4 range for an adult: 0.9 – 1.7 ng/dL (nanograms per deciliter of blood)
  • T3: Triiodothyronine tests help diagnose hyperthyroidism or to show the severity of hyperthyroidism. Low T3 levels can be observed in hypothyroidism, but more often this test is useful in the diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism, where T3 levels are elevated. Normal T3 range: 100 – 200 ng/dL (nanograms per deciliter of blood).
  • FT3: Free T3 or free triiodothyronine is a method of measuring T3 that eliminates the effect of proteins that naturally bind T3 and may prevent accurate measurement. Normal FT3 range: 2.3 – 4.1 pg/mL (picograms per milliliter of blood)

These tests alone aren’t meant to diagnose any illness but may prompt your healthcare provider to do additional testing to evaluate for a possible thyroid disorder.

How is thyroid disease treated?

Your healthcare provider’s goal is to return your thyroid hormone levels to normal. This can be done in a variety of ways and each specific treatment will depend on the cause of your thyroid condition.

If you have high levels of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism), treatment options can include:

  • Anti-thyroid drugs (methimazole and propylthiouracil): These are medications that stop your thyroid from making hormones.
  • Radioactive iodine: This treatment damages the cells of your thyroid, preventing it from making high levels of thyroid hormones.
  • Beta-blockers: These medications don’t change the number of hormones in your body, but they help control your symptoms.
  • Surgery: A more permanent form of treatment, your healthcare provider may surgically remove your thyroid (thyroidectomy). This will stop it from creating hormones. However, you will need to take thyroid replacement hormones for the rest of your life.

If you have low levels of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism), the main treatment option is:

  • Thyroid replacement medication: This drug is a synthetic (man-made) way to add thyroid hormones back into your body. One drug that’s commonly used is called levothyroxine. By using a medication, you can control thyroid disease and live a normal life.

Something I will share with you if you suffering from this disease I suggested you also check your hormones monthly. Take proper diet and manage your health because precaution is better than treatment.

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